Certain types of cancer arise as a result of certain viral infections.Infection with HPV virus is considered as a major risk factor for the development of cervical cancer.HPV is isolated in 99.7% of all cervical cancers. It is thought that the virus transforming cellular proteins that are encoded by the viral genes E6 and E7 may block the products of tumor suppressor genes p53 and pRb in the cell and thus lead to its uncontrolled, abnormal division.HPV is classified into the group of high-risk genotypes (HPV 16, 18, 31, 45 i) and a group of low-risk genotypes (HPV 6 11 i).
HPV 16 causes about 50%, and HPV 16 and 18, approximately 70% of all cervical cancers. Between 18 and 24 years of age with high-risk HPV types are 8-12% of infected women and 35 years is 2-5%.HPV infection to cervical cancer, which is transmitted sexually, mostly in subclinical form and is present in 7-17% of women. This infection has a role of a promoter in carcinogenesis.In June 2006, the US approved the first vaccine against HPV. The vaccine is known under the name Gardasil vaccine.
In clinical trials, the vaccine proved to be very effective in preventing infection with the two types of HPV of the high-risk HPV 16 and HPV 18. These viruses are responsible for 70% of cases of cancer of the cervix caused by HPV. The vaccine also protects against infection with HPV types 6 and 11, which cause approximately 90% of genital warts. HPV vaccine is a recombinant vaccine, meaning it did not contain live virus. The virus in the vaccine is a protein produced by genetic engineering and can not cause HPV infection.
It is given in a series of three injections into the muscle during the six month period.The US vaccine is routinely given to girls aged between 11 and 12 years. However, the vaccine can be given to girls as young as 9 years of age in cooperation with the gynecologist.Best HPV vaccine is given before the girl becomes sexually active.Although women not previously exposed to HPV have the full benefit of the vaccine has been shown that the vaccine benefits women who have previously been sexually active and thus exposed to HPV. For these reasons, it is recommended that women aged between 13 and 26 also be vaccinated.
Women who received the vaccine should continue to adhere to regular gynecological examinations and Pap tests. The vaccine does not protect against other sexually transmitted diseases and women must adhere to the usual measures to protect against these diseases.
Vaccines prevent, but not treat HPV infection.Hepatitis B is a severe infectious disease, which can lead to severe liver injury and the development of cirrhosis and liver cancer. Is caused by the virus of hepatitis B.Hepatitis B is preventable with a safe and effective vaccine. There is a vaccine against hepatitis B. One of the indications for giving this vaccine is the sexual partners of people who have been infected with the virus. As prevention of hepatitis B is practicing safe sex, with proper use of condoms. It minimizes the risk of infection through sexual intercourse, and thus reduces the risk of developing liver cancer.